Orang dan Tempat
, Asia Tenggara
Ancaman Konservasi TerlibatPerburuan & Koleksi Hewan Darat
, Mengumpulkan Tanaman Darat
, Penambangan & Kuari
, Pembalakan & Pemanenan Kayu
, Budi Daya Perairan Laut & Tawar
, Penangkapan Ikan dan Pemanenan Sumber Daya Air
, Pengembangan Residensial & Komersial
, Perubahan Iklim dan Cuaca Buruk
, Pertanian & Budi Daya Perairan
, Penggunaan Sumber Daya Biologis
Fisheries are a major activity in Indonesia and it has been estimated that 60 percent of protein consumption is derived from fisheries. About 90 percent of all fisheries are artisanal, with products for local consumption or for sale in local markets (Reef Base, 2005). The marine resources of Berau MPA are threatened by unsustainable fishing practices including illegal fishing, unregulated fishing, unreported fishing, over-fishing, and especially destructive fishing. Illegal, Unregulated and Unreported (IUU) fishing not only puts the livelihoods of the legal fishermen at risk but it also has an enormous impact on the marine environment and the species living within this environment.
For example, gleaning activities, primarily conducted by women to collect non-fish biota in inter-tidal coastal areas, destroy the reefs. Reef gleaners collect crustacean, mollusk, echinoderm and mantas but they also decrease the marine stock, cause physical damage to coral reefs and disturb the ecological balance of marine ecosystems.Another destructive fishing practice is that of cyanide fishing. Cyanide poisons are used extensively to catch live reef fish for consumption and ornamental purposes.
The industrial and commercial development of coastal areas has already altered and polluted seagrass ecosystems in many countries and urbanization, the mismanagement of agriculture, and the grazing livestock on coastal dunes has contributed to the degradation of these ecosystems in other nations. Human induced global climate change may also impact the distribution of seagrasses as sea levels rise and severe storms occur more frequently
In Berau Regency, mining operations and timber exploitation lead to deforestation and increase erosion in the area thereby affecting the Berau watershed.
Berau Marine Protected Area (MPA) is located in Berau Regency in the province of East Kalimantan (Kalimantan Timur). The regency lies north of the provincial capital of Samarinda. The regency has a large coastal area covering 461.77 km of coastline and around 31 small islands. The capital city of the regency is Tanjung Redeb. Approximately 118,096 people reside in the regency in 28,993 households and the area has a population density of 4.88 people per km2. The regency consists of ten sub-districts and 89 villages, including four coastal sub-districts and 25 coastal villages.Berau’s coastal and marine areas are part of the Indo-Australian region, the richest faunal region in the world in terms of biodiversity. The area also has the highest marine biodiversity in East Kalimantan. Furthermore, this area is located in the center of the Coral Triangle, a region recognized as the global epicenter for coral biodiversity. The Coral Triangle consists of the waters and coastal regions of six countries: Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippines, Timor Leste, Papua New Guinea and the Solomon Islands. The Coral Triangle covers an extraordinary expanse of ocean encompassing an area of 2.3 million square miles (5.7 million km2).
Other Protected Area Status or Special Designation
Marine Protected Area
|Total Ukuran Habitat (Hektar) ||3690100|
|Total Populasi Sasaran ||5197|
|Total Populasi di Lokasi Sasaran ||136628|
Rangkuman Total Populasi
There are 25 settlements in 7 sub-districts in the Berau Regency and Tanjung Redeb village is the capital of Berau District. Most people residing within Berau MPA live along or near the coast in small communities. Community members have settled small plots of land upon which they build dwellings, construct traditional shrimp ponds or dry fish. Some villagers hold official land titles while others only have permit from the Head of Village and the Head of Sub-District. In regards to marine resources, community members must go to the Berau Fisheries Agency to obtain a permit to carry out fishing activities. In Berau, it is not uncommon to find traditional laws that govern the community use of marine resources. However, village communities do not enforce any formal fisheries management systems based upon local knowledge and customary law. Furthermore, fishermen can exploit marine resources in almost all areas and no punishment exists for either the over-exploitation of marine resources or the use of non-traditional fishing practices.
Tujuan dan Hasil
Rangkuman hasil terakhir
The final analysis of the Berau Rare Pride campaign was based upon a pre-survey of 288 participants and a post-survey of 283 respondents from six villages within the Berau MPA.
•The number of respondents in the communities who are aware of the protected status of the Berau MPA increased from 19 percent to 40 percent.
•The number of respondents who disagreed that the coral reef in their community was in good condition and did not need special protection rose from 54 percent to 82 percent.
•The number of housewives that say they took part in conservation activities to protect coastal and marine environments from destructive activities improved from 6 percent to 62 percent.
•The knowledge of elementary students rose on average from 0 percent to 92 percent on a number of conservation issues related to the importance of the coral reef, the status of the Berau MPA, and about the worst three fishing practices for the marine environment.
•Hirmen produced and distributed throughout his campaign 500 badges, 1,000 stickers, 2,500 bumper stickers, 1,200 posters and 2,500 environmental factsheets. All of these materials portrayed the flagship species and campaign slogan.
•62% of all women took part in conservation activities to protect coastal and marine environments from destructive activities—much greater participation than before the campaign.
•92% of all elementary students demonstrated knowledge about the Berau MPA -- the importance of the coral reef, the status of the Berau MPA, and the most threatening fishing practices.
•Five villages and over 3,000 actively participated in protecting the coastal and marine areas surrounding their residences and later petitioned in support new Berau MPA zoning regulations.
Sub Goal 1
The TNC-WWF Joint Program (TNC-WWF) will conduct an education and conservation awareness program in the following fishing and coastal communities: Tanjung Batu, Teluk Semanting, Pantai Harapan, Giring-Giring and Balikukup in order to promote the active participation of community members in protecting Berau MPA resources and to prompt them to halt their destructive, illegal activities.
By the end of April 2007, 40 percent (up from 16%) of respondents in the five communities will be aware of the protected status of Berau MPA. Refer to question No. 12 on the Survey.
By the end of April 2007, 86 percent (up from 66%) of fishermen in the five communities will state that coral reefs are threatened and agree to protect them. Refer to question No. 17 on the Survey.
Objective 3 A
By the end of April 2007, 40 percent (up from 16%) of housewives in the five communities will agree that coral reefs and the coastal environment serves an important function to protect the beach. Refer to Question No. 18 on the survey.
Objective 3 B
By the end of April 2007, 40 percent (up from 16%) of housewives in the five communities will participate in conservation activities to protect the coastal and marine environment from destructive activities (blast and cyanide fishing, the destruction of mangroves, etc). Refer to question No. 23 on the Survey.
By the end of April 2007, 90 percent of respondents (up from 60 %) in the target areas will understand that some fishing techniques (blast and cyanide fishing and the use of the trawl net) hurt Berau’s coastal and marine resources. Refer to question No. 11 on the survey.
Through educating villagers and sub-district government staff, community representatives in the five villages will protect the coastal and marine areas of their villages and they will support the zoning concept for Berau MPA.
After completion of the program in April 2007, two villages will actively participate in protecting the coastal and marine areas surrounding their villages and they will petition to support Berau MPA zoning.
Through educating elementary students about the status of Berau MPA, they will be able to understand the importance of coral reefs and the coastal environment and they will participate in conservation activities (beach clean up, mangrove plantation). The students can then relay the knowledge they learn to their families and thereby the larger community. Refer to questions No. 12, No. 17, No. 18 and No. 23 on the Survey.
By the end of April 2007, 100 elementary students from each village (total 500 students) - or at least 20 percent elementary school students - will know the status of Berau MPA, the important of the coral reef, and at least three best fishing practices and they will be able to share this knowledge with their families.
# Orang yang Disurvei
% Populasi yang Disurvei
# in Control Group