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Campaign for Sustainable Agriculture/Ujung Kulon National Park, Banten, Java (Bogor 3 Campaign) Campaign Details


Theory of Change

Campaign for Sustainable Agriculture/Ujung Kulon National Park, Banten, Java (Bogor 3 Campaign) will save the habitat of the Javan Rhinoceros by reducing the clearing of forest for agriculture by 2015-10-15. This threat will be reduced because farmers will stick to their own plots of land, and not extend their farms into Ujung Kulon National Park which is enabled by the fact that a highly fruitful agricultural intensification system will be adopted by the tenant farmers living around the park. We will know that the campaign is having an impact when we observe discussions of the benefits of the new agricultural system, and the importance of the forest as a water catchment area, among the target audience. The target audience will be willing to engage in this new behavior because a Pride campaign will change their willingness to adopt more sustainable farming techniques and awareness of the importance of Ujung Kulon as the habitat of Javan Rhinos.






Interpersonal communication


Barrier removal


Behavior change


Threat reduction


Conservation result

Strategy for Success

To stop agricultural expansion from moving farther into the core zone of Ujung Kulon National Park, the last habitat to the endangered Javan rhinos, the Pride campaign will be used to increase people’s understanding in the target villages about the National Park zoning system and its functions, as well as introduce skills and techniques in agriculture intensification systems. Knowledge in this system is expected to help local people optimize their land holdings, so that they will not seek new land in the park illegally. Success will be achieved when no new agriculture land is created within the Gunung Honje Forest/Park’s buffer zone.

People and Places

Campaign Region

Asia, Indonesia, South-Eastern Asia

Conservation Threats Involved

Annual and Perennial Non-Timber Crops, Fire and Fire Suppression, Hunting and Collecting Terrestrial Animals, Mining and Quarrying, Logging and Wood Harvesting

Threat Description

• Land clearing for agriculture purposes (rice fields) - Land clearing for rice fields threathens the habitat of the Javan Rhinoceros. Such a threat is getting serious because communities have their perception of improving the harvested crop by extending their land.

• Illegal logging - Illegal logging, which threathens the area of Mount Honje, is done since people need to meet their neccesities and they do not have other activities that give them additional income. Ignoring such a threat means promoting the escalation of it until it destroys the habitat of the Javan Rhinoceros.

• Forest fire (Fire & Fire Extinguishing) – The last forest fire case that happened in the area of Mount Honje was in 2007. It was triggered by people who carelessly threw their cigarette butts away and those who forgot to extinguish their campfires during their honey search. The impact of the fire was small because the community participated in extinguishing it and the TNUK rangers quickly responded to it.

• Boar hunting in the TNUK area (Terrestrial Animal Hunting & Poaching) – People hunt the boar because it is considered a pest to their crops. The boar hunting impact is very small since it has always done in the eastern part of Mount Honje only.

• Illegal mining (Mining & Excavation) – People used to run illegal mining to get sand, rocks, and gold. It is no longer done since there are cheaper and easy-to-find alternatives, and strict law enforcement in this area.

Site Description

The area of Ujung Kulon National Park which covers Mount Honje, Ujung Kulon Peninsula and Panaitan Island is part of the young tertiary mountainous region covering the pre-tertiary strata of Sundaland during the tertiary era. During the Pleistocene Epoch, the mountainous region of Honje formed the southern tip of the mountainous region of Bukit Barisan in Sumatera. The southern tip of this mountainous region was then separated from the rest of it after the fold of Sunda Strait dome. The middle and eastern part of Ujung Kulon Peninsula consists of the formation of miocene limestone covered by alluvial sediment in the north and sand sediment in the south.


The western part of Ujung Kulon Peninsula is the mountainous region of Mount Payung formed by miocene sediment. The eastern part of the Peninsula, which is also the mountainous region of Honje, has older rocks and is covered by volcanic sediment and marine tufa in the middle and by limestone rock and marl in the east.


Panaitan Island’s fold and rock formations are similar to those of Mount Payung. To the west of the island, mainly the northwest part, there are volcanic materials such as breccia, tufa and quartzite formed during the Holocene Epoch.


The soil of the Ujung Kulon National Park, especially the Ujung Kulon Peninsula, has been through extensive local modification after the formation of volcanic sediment during the eruption of Mount Krakatau in 1883 (Hommel, 1987). The main parts of the soil of Ujung Kulon National Park are from volcanic rock such as red lava rock, marl, tuff, sandy rock and conglomerate. Parts of Mount Honje, Ujung Kulon Peninsula and Peucang Island are mostly covered by complex soil of grumusol, regosol and mediterranean, with physiographycally fold hills. In the area of Mount Honje there are types of sandy gray regosol soil at the coastal part, yellow-brown podzolic soil, mediterranean soil, grumusol, regosol dan latosol. The soil types are generally poor in nutrients and low in fertility.

Other Protected Area Status or Special Designation

World Heritage Site

Site Data

Total Habitat Size (Hectares)120551
Target Habitat Size (Hectares)11691
Total Target Population28273
Total Population at Target Site58934

Total Population Summary

The total population of 19 villages in 2 subdistricts, i.e. Sumur and Cimanggu, based on the 2008 Pandeglang District’s Village Potential Survey, is 58,934. The total population in the 10 villages targeted by the Pride Campaign is 28,273. Some of these people still inhabit the area of Ujung Kulon National Park, i.e. 89 households in Kp Legon Pakis, 76 households in Kp. Peteuy, Kp. Salam and Kp. Cipakis of Ujung Jaya Village, and 74 households in Kp. Ciakar of Cibadak Village.

Target Audiences

Farmers who own personal plots outside the area of Cegog, Cibadak and Ujung Jaya Villages (primary audience)
Farmers who own plots within the area of TNUK (secondary audience)

Number of communities targeted. (Raw numbers of villages, towns and/or communities)



Species Involved


Habitats Involved

1.6 Subtropical/Tropical Moist Lowland

Flagship Species

Javan Rhinoceros is the rarest large mammal, surviving and breeding in the only a single habitat in the world, Ujung Kulon National Park (TNUK). Protecting the Javan Rhinoceros means protecting its habitat and the supporting area of the habitat. This animal is a solitary species. From year to year, the number of its population does not change significantly, remaining around 50-60 rhinos. The animal’s prism-patterned skin is 1-2 cm thick, while its height is 120–150 cm. To stabilize its body temperature, due to its blood characteristics, the Javan Rhinoceros wallows. Its eating behaviour is quite unique: pruning, pulling away, felling down and cutting. Its frequently eaten foods are sulangkar and rattan.



Endangered status before the campaign.


Red Data

# of species on IUCN Red List of Threatened Species list3
List names of IUCN Red List of Threatened Species at siteJavan Rhinoceros (Rhinoceros sondaicus)
Silvery Javan Gibbon (Hylobates moloch)
Javan Surili (Presbytis comata)

Endemic Data

# of endemic species3
List names of endemic species at siteJavan Rhinoceros (Rhinoceros sondaicus)
Silvery Javan Gibbon (Hylobates moloch)
Javan Surili (Presbytis comata)

Campaign Activity

Conservation Actions being used

Formal Education, Linked Enterprises & Livelihood Alternatives, Training, Awareness & Communications

Media Activities

Radio programs related to campaign2
Radio Shows & Spotsyes
Number of Press Hits1

Web Activities

Were pictures from this campaign uploaded to photo-sharing sites? (e.g. Flickr)no
Were videos from the campaign uploaded to sites like YouTube?no
Are there groups for this campaign on other social networking sites? (Facebook, MySpace, Orkut, etc.)yes

Outreach Activities/Events

Banner 10
Number environmental clubs formed1
Number garden demonstration plots made1

Outreach materials distributed

Number flagship costume done1

Goals and Results

Summary of final results

To reduction threat to Ujung Kulon National Park as habitat of Javan Rhinoceros, it’s really important to decrease forest clearing for agriculture and illegal logging. Local farmers will have information about Ujung Kulon National Park biodiversity, the advantage to adopt settled agriculture and other income source which already develop in that region. The new system and agriculture technique will give higher and sustainable income and also help to protect forest livelihood. Farmers will be introducing with those technique, beside that they also will get agriculture training technical support to adopt and implement the technique. In the first year campaign, there was 50% adoption of agriculture intensification technique. This pride campaign considered as a successful campaign if 30% farmers in Ujung Kulon National Park didn’t do forest clearing and extend their cultivation land in one year campaign and also in 2015 no longer forest clearing reported.

Protected Area status of site. Legally protected as a park/reserve AFTER the campaign?


Target area protected before campaign (hectacres)


Target area protected after campaign (hectacres)


Legislative protection for flagship species formally established BEFORE the campaign?


Legislative protection AFTER the campaign?


# of People Surveyed


Attitude Goals

Goal% Change
June 2010, 90 % of farmers in 3 primary target village agreed to implement agriculture intensification from 78% farmer as pre survey result-21
By the end of June 2010, cultivation farmers outside UKNP in 3 primary target village agree that agriculture intensification system can minimize cultivation land extension or forest encroachment in UKNP, increase from 42.7 % to 70%. 8
June 2010, cultivation farmers outside UKNP in 3 primary target village are agree using their money as a saving, increase from 24.4 % to 35%. -19

Knowledge Goals

Goal% Change
June 2010, Incomprehension of farmers outside UKNP in 3 primary target village decrease from 86.59 % to 70% from pre survey last year7
June 2010, Knowledge about using other saving (money, education, tree and gold) beside rice field inside national park of farmers outside UKNP in 3 primary target village will increase from 37.8 % to 50 %-29

Behavior Goals

Goal% Change
By the end of Pride activity (June 2010), 30% of farmers that cultivate land outside UKNP area in 3 primary target villages have implemented agriculture intensification pattern (83 people)55
By the end of Pride activity (June 2010), 30% of farmers that cultivate land within UKNP area in 3 primary target villages will not do land encroachment to further extend their cultivation land85

Interpersonal Communication Goals

Goal% Change
By June 2010, 20% of community that cultivate land within the UKNP area will talk to their friends about a more productive and sustainable agriculture technique outside NP area (up from 3.9%)4

Threat Reduction

Goal% Change
By 2012, the habitat of the Javan Rhinoceros will no longer be threathened by land clearing for agricultural purposes in the area of TNUK.

Survey Demographics

Percent with secondary or more education16
Percent that watch TV at least occasionally (all but never Percentage)54
Percent that live in rural areas100
Percentage of the target population that has heard a radio spot about campaign topic60
Percentage of the target populations that has heard a song on radio38
Percent that listen to radio at least occasionally (all but never Percentage)38
Percent that are unemployed/not working (Percentage)2
Percent of sample that is male (Percentage)69
Percent of sample that is 25 or younger (Percentage)14
Percent that are employed in agriculture or fishing (Percentage)70
Percent that are currently students (Percentage)1

Code and Dates

Project Code: UJUNGK

Campaign Dates: 2008-09-01 - 2010-06-01

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